Writing tips – The Four Kinds of Sentences
Grammar – Perfect Aspect
Corner Office: Lloyd Blankfein
Broadcaster: The New York Times
Series: The New York Times /Business (Video)
Episode: Corner Office: Lloyd Blankfein
“Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things”
Peter Drucker (1909 – 2005)
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Instructions for completing the listening exercise
- Listen to the recording once and answer the questions below.
- Read the Vocabulary, and listen to the recording the second time. Correct and complete your answers.
- Read the Script and check your answers
- What helped Mr. Blankfein to retain the unity and integrity of his company during the crisis?
- What kind of corporate culture does he inspire in his firm?
- What kind of staff is he interested in hiring?
- What principle(s) does he believe are important to ensure successful cooperation with others?
|the Corner Office||As corner offices are typically given to the most senior executives, the term primarily refers to top management positions|
|upheaval||Strong or violent change or disturbance, as in a society|
|the Street||The section of a city associated with a given profession or trade, especially when concerned with business or finance, as wall street|
|evolved||To develop gradually|
|driving||To cause and guide the movement of|
|manifest||To make clear or evident|
|sort of (kind of)||In a way; somewhat; rather: Their conversation was sort of tiresome|
|day-to-day||Occurring each day; concerned only with immediate needs or desires|
|validated||To make valid; substantiate; confirm: Time validated our suspicions|
|walk around||Walk with no particular goal|
|emphasize||Lay stress upon; stress: to emphasize a point|
|drew from||To get, take, or receive, as from a source|
|expansively||Unrestrainly, openly, comprehensively|
|get trapped by||To stop and hold by a trap|
|definitionally||By definition or fact|
|critical faculty||Function of conscious, trained and educated mind|
|perspective||A mental view or one’s opinion|
|reason writing||Writing of opinions, concerns, beliefs or views|
|bring to the table||To provide something that will be a benefit|
|hunger strike||Refusal to eat enough to sustain life|
|jump off the cliff||To commit suicide|
|screens out||Examine in order to test suitability|
|the bread always lends on the buttered side down||Anything that can possibly go wrong, does (one of Murphy’s Laws)|
|piddling amount of money||Amounting to very little; trifling; negligible|
|took a lot of pressure off me, he took the weight off the scale for me||Remove fully or in part the sense of responsibility for or stress from an activity|
|extracurricular||After school activities|
|working papers||Legal papers enabling a minor in the U.S. to work under certain conditions|
|vendor||A person or agency that sells|
|steep||Having an almost vertical slope|
|implicit||Implied, not expressly stated, contained|
Summarize in 50 words or less the main point of the recording you have listened to.
Declarative sentence – makes a statement ending with .
- Students have been studying well for the exam.
- Installation of a new processing unit has sped up all processes.
Interrogative sentence – asks a question ending with ?
- Do you like music?
- Have you seen this movie?
Imperative sentence – gives a command or order ending with .
- Finish your breakfast.
- Call to the customer immediately.
Exclamatory sentence – shows strong emotion ending with !
- Be quiet now!
- Get out of my car!
- This room is so bright!
For each sentence below, decide what kind of a sentence each is:
- How polite you are
- The company expanded two years ago
- Compare these two brands
- Show me your ID card
- Who won the match
- It is wonderful weather
- Have you cleaned your room
Present Perfect Simple
Have (Has) + Past Participle => I have worked, I have been; He has worked, He has been
Current results, Experiences, Finished events with current relevance, WITHOUT telling exactly WHEN?, but PERIOD of time, i.e. till now, since when, for how long, recently, today, just, already, yet, etc.
|I have written 5 emails.||I wrote 5 emails yesterday.|
|It has been 5 years since we last met.||I met him 5 years ago.|
|She has trained new staff for two consecutive years.||She trained new staff for two consecutive years and left the firm.|
|I have recently been promoted to a higher position in our firm.||I was promoted to a higher position last week.|
|He hasn’t had breakfast, yet.||He didn’t have breakfast in the morning.|
|She has already finished her presentation.||She finished her presentation five minutes ago.|
Past Perfect Simple
Had + Past Participle => I had worked, I had been; He had worked, He had been
Indicates that an event was completed before some other event.
|Past Perfect Simple:||I came home. My wife had cooked the dinner.||2 before 1, reversed order|
|Past Continuous:||I came home. My wife was cooking the dinner.||1 while 2 was happenning|
|Past Simple:||I came home. I cooked the dinner.||1 and then 2, i.e. chronologically|
|Prior to moving to the Chinese market, we had carried out a thorough market research.||We carried out a thorough market research and moved to Chinese market.|
|Our company suffered huge losses because we had maintained a large portfolio of overvalued real estate property.||We maintained a large portfolio of overvalued real estate property and suffered huge losses.|
|She had trained new staff prior to embarking on a new project.||She trained new staff and embarked on a new project.|
|His department had fulfilled all the targets when he was promoted to a higher position in our firm.||Department fulfilled all the targets and he was promoted to a higher position.|
|It was nearly noon, but he hadn’t had breakfast, yet.||He didn’t have breakfast in the morning.|
|She had already finished her presentation when I decided to ask her a question.||She finished presentation and I decided to ask her a question.|
Future Perfect Simple
Will Have + Past Participle => I will have worked, I will have been; He will have worked, He will have been
Indicates the result of an event that will be completed BY some time in the future.
|Future Perfect Simple:||I will have finished this project by tomorrow evening.||(Future result)|
|Future Continuous:||I will be working on this project after our meeting tonight.||(According to schedule)|
|Future Simple:||I will work on this project tomorrow.||(Promise)|
|By this time next week, I will have taken all my exams.||I will take one exam tomorrow and another one on the day thereafter.|
|Before the legacy system crumbles down, we will have replaced it.||The legacy system will crumble down. We will replace the system.|
|By the end of this month, I will have had this job for 10 years.||I will work here one more month if I want to celebrate my 10 year anniversary.|
Correct sentences below.
- He had win 10 chess matches.
- She have learned how to drive when she was 16 years old.
- I had baught two ice-creams yesterday.
- She will has just had a breakfast.
- By the time she retired, she will has worked at this company for 10 years.
- He hasn’t read a newspaper on June 2.
- She will not have ate ice-cream when I will come.